Monday, May 25, 2020
The year 2000 (Y2K) problem scared the world. Although some were ready to party like its 1999, others predicted catastrophe at the end of the year because of a programming assumption from the early days of computers. Y2K entered the cultural conversation over concerns that technology and automated systems would fail when their clocks had to convert the date from Dec. 31, 1999 to Jan. 1, 2000. Age of Technological Fear Many assumed that electronics would not be able to compute dates that did not begin with 19 because they ran on outdated, short-sighted programming. Computer systems would be so confused that they would completely shut down, leading to chaos and wide-scale disruption. Considering how much of our everyday lives were run by computers in 99, New Years was expected to bring about serious computerized consequences. People were worried about banks,Ã traffic lights, the power grid, airports, microwaves, and televisions which were all run by computers. Doomsayers even predicted that mechanical processes like flushing toilets would be affected by the Y2K bug. Some thought that Y2K would end civilization as we knew it. As computer programmers madly dashed to update computers systems with new information, many in the public prepared themselves by storing extra cash and food supplies. Preparations for the Bug By 1997, a few years ahead of widespread panic over the millennium problem, computer scientists were already working toward the solution. The British Standards Institute (BSI) developed new computer standards to define conformity requirements for the year 2000. Known asÃ DISC PD2000-1, the standard outlined four rules: No value for current date will cause any interruption in operation.Date-based functionality must behave consistently for dates prior to, during, and after 2000.In all interfaces and data storage, the century in any date must be specified either explicitly or by unambiguous inferencing rules and algorithms.2000 must be recognized as a leap year.Ã Essentially, the standard understood the bug to rely on two key issues: The existing two-digit representation was problematic in date processing.A misunderstanding of calculations for leap years in the Gregorian Calendar caused the year 2000 to not be programmed as a leap year. The first problem was solved by creating new programming for dates to be entered as four-digit numbers (1997, 1998, 1999, and so on), where they were previously represented only by two (97, 98, and 99). The second solution was amending the algorithm for calculating leap years to any year value divided by 100 is not a leap year, with the addition of excluding years which are divisible by 400. What HappenedÃ on January 1? With so much preparation and updated programming done before the change of date, the catastrophe was mostly averted. When the prophesied date came and computer clocks around the world updated to Jan. 1, 2000, very little happened that was abnormal. Only a few relatively minor millennium bug problems occurred, and even fewer were reported.
Friday, May 15, 2020
While different from most peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations, adoption can be a wonderful alternative to natural child birth. For people that can have their own biological children and for those that can not, adoption can be the solution to having a fulfilling family. The biological parents placing their children for adoption, the adopting parents, and the children being adopted all benefit greatly from adoption. Most women can naturally get pregnant and most men can naturally get women pregnant. But for the small minority that can not get pregnant, for whatever reason or other, have to explore other means of having children. Adoption is a wonderful choice. Adoption has been a blessing for my family. When I found out that my husband couldÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦We hired an attorney that handled private adoptions and only paid a fraction of the agency prices. The attorney worked for the birth mother and had the responsibility of connecting the right set of adopting parents with her specific criteria. In our case, the process was simple. The birth mother gave the attorney a set of criteria that she hoped for from the adopting parents. The criteria requested information such as religion, race, education, job security, etc. Our first step was to write a Ã¢â¬Å"Dear BirthmotherÃ¢â¬ letter and tell everything about ourselves. We wrote about what kind of people we were, how we would raise our children, our likes and dislikes, stories about our upbringing, and so on. Part of the letter was written from me and gave my perspective on adoption and the rest was written by my husband which gave his perspective. We included pictures of ourselves, pictures of our home, and pictures of us with extended family members. All of this was compiled into a portfolio. When the attorney thought that she had matched the right couples with the right birth mother, she presented our portfolio along with two others for the birth mother to review. The birthmother narrowed it down to two sets of adopting parents and requested for us to meet with her. She showed a lot of interest in us but wanted to meet with both couples before she made her final decision. A few days after meeting with theShow MoreRelatedReflection On Liberty Godparent Home1640 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespractice setting in particular peeked my interest: The Liberty Godparent Home (LGH) and Family Life Services (FLS). Though two distinct ministries, they work in tandem to facilitate the wellbeing of young mothers and adoption placements. We specifically met with Paige Crouch, the Adoption Caseworker for FLS, and Hailey Belcher, the Case Manager for LGH. The following is an in depth evaluation and reflection of this practice setting and how itÃ¢â¬â¢s informed my study and preparation within the socialRead MoreAdopting A Child From A Race856 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestell them that they shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t think like the way they think about life in general but I am just a guy from the outside trying to look in the inside I could blame them to feel what they felt, the government should educated everyone about transracial adoption I think if people are aware of this then they wo uld be acceptable about the difference of other people. Make a universal symbol for these people that way people would know why these kids look like them but act and talk different. I never thoughtRead MoreImportant Clinical Issues Of The Family Conflict812 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesconsidered to be the client of interest, I believe it would be beneficial to invite Tova and Travis to join their daughter in counseling. My hope is that Avery will find the space within herself to embrace her unique multicultural identity. Potential Countertransference As a multicultural counselor, I want to learn about the different worldviews of my clients and understand my own reactions (Sue Sue, 2012, p. 6). I understand the advantages I have as a White person, and that many systems I take for grantedRead MoreBecoming A Licensed Christian Counselor920 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesunfortunately, many parents fall short on the explanation of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s physical, emotional and spiritual design for them. This is where the Christian counselor comes in. It is my dream and goal to ultimately become a Christian counselor specializing in at-risk teens and families. To become a licensed Christian counselor, one must start the journey by setting solid academic goals and pursuing the education required for such licensure. For me, these educational goals include AssociateÃ¢â¬â¢s and BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degreesRead More Adoption Essay636 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesnonbiological parent or parents is the definition of adoption. In such a transfer, adoptive parents acc ept the same rights and responsibilities as the childÃ¢â¬â¢s birth parents would have had, while the child becomes a member of a family that provides the social, emotional, and physical nurturing that children needs to grow up to be healthy, functioning adults. But there are some legal issues or opinions that can lead to a halting backfire in the adoption process. But, as the biological parent(s) and adoptingRead MorePersonal Statement About My Hero The First Person887 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesabout my hero the first person, or in my case persons that came to mind were my parents. My parents had a raised their family, even had two grandchildren, but that was not enough for them, they adopted my sister and I and started all over again. In June of 2004 my sister and I were living in an orphanage in Tambov, Russia. We had been living there for almost five years, so when we were in formed a that a couple from the United States were interested in adopting us we were very excited. My parentsRead MoreCultural Identity And Identity Essay : Who I Am?1448 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthat was my childhoodÃ¢â¬âor really any country song about being a kid. The age old question, Ã¢â¬Å"Who do you want to be when you grow up?Ã¢â¬ , implies that we are never fully adult until we are fully who we want to be. As I have transitioned into adulthood, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve found that we are never really fully grown, but rather always growing. We are always changing, transitioning, and striving to become our ideal selves; however, this destination should never disqualify the journey of getting there. The journey is whatRead MoreA Report On Medical Records1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages I was adopted by my family the day after I was born. From ages four through nine I was admitted into the hospital, every year, for dehydration which caused uncontrollable vomiting. These illness continue to plague me even today. Doctors would often prescribe antibiotics which would help until my next illness occurred. Their never seemed to be a month that would go by without some kind of illness. The summer going into 8th, I went under nose surgery. A month after my surgery, I ended up gettingRead MoreThe Moral Judgement And Moral Judgment1220 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTogether we revisited a time in my life that was not easy. We explored a moral dilemma, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"should I have ignored the struggles that I would encounter to keep custody of my son, or should I have given up my parental rights so he could be adopted by someone who could better provide for his medical and special needs?Ã¢â¬ We came to the moral judgment was that I should put aside my personal interest, and al low my son to be adopted. This moral judgment was based on the rule that it is always necessaryRead MoreThemes Of Immortality And Improbable Brotherhood Of Gilgamesh And Enkidu1250 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesway making him the animal Enkidu once was. The pleas of the people voiced to the gods were, Ã¢â¬Å"Gilgamesh would leave no girl to her mother! The warriors daughter, the young manÃ¢â¬â¢s spouseÃ¢â¬ (Sanders, 39). The joining of Enkidu and Gilgamesh during a journey where Enkidu stops Gilgamesh from raping a bride to be starts the link in the chain to brotherhood. A sense of respect was formed through a fight which gave them both a chance to see their equal strength. Gilgamesh quickly realizes that Enkidu is
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Has there ever existed a person that has not judged someone else over their lifetime? Judging by reality as well as literature it seems that no person like that has ever existed. It appears that it is human nature to want to pronounce others as either purely good or evil. But does everyone fit into the mold of good or evil? In Albert Camuss The Stranger, Meursault is a morally ambiguous character, and this ethical indistinctness plays a major part in the novel as a whole and the theme that Camus is trying to portray. Meursault resists being typecast into an archetypal moral category in many of his deeds and actions. Many of his actions in Part One of the novel help contribute to the fuzzy picture of the character. For example,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Abstractly, it almost seems as though the other characters in the book look down on his for this not because he is not mourning, but rather because he is not mourning in the way they are. This sheds light on the overall theme of the novel, that of people being cast out of society because their views and methods do not line up with the accepted ways of society. The same moral ambiguity is also present in Meursaults murder of the Arab and the ensuing trial. As far as absolute morality goes, the murder is without question an act that falls on the evil side of ethics. That point is not a topic for debate, but in the reasons behind it the reader can find even more of Meursaults moral ambiguity. At the time, he does not seem to know why he is doing what he is doing, but it is certainly not out of spite or malice, nor out of any specific hatred of the Arab himself. He could be harboring a grudge on behalf of his friend, which would be understandable, since Raymond is one of the only people we see Meursault truly connect with in the novel, if it can even be called that. He could be taking preemptive action in self-defense, especially after he sees the knife glinting in the Arabs hand. In truth, it is never truly revealed what his motive for his rash action was, making it hard again toShow MoreRelatedNathaniel Hawthorne s The Scarlet Letter1 602 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbegins with a stranger sharing a peaceful evening with a family near a fireplace. Hawthorne emphasizes the sense of warmth and unity between the intimate group. Although the stranger had just met the tight-knit family, he quickly finds Ã¢â¬Å"warmth and simplicity of feelingÃ¢â¬ in his surroundings. Hawthorne then shifts the warm tone to serious and thought-provoking, when he introduces death and the legacy one leaves behind, into the conversion. The group shares their future wishes: the stranger yearned toRead MoreAnalysis Of Hofstede s Dimension Of Culture1420 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswithin a culture are made nervous by situations which they perceive as unstructured, unclear, or unpredictable. Japan is extremely high and the United States is low. High uncertainty-avoidance cultures seek to avoid ambiguity. Cultures low in uncertainty avoidance tend to accept ambiguity and lack of structure more easily. Mark avoided the problem for years. His avoidance of the problem is an example of individuals from low-uncertainty-avoidance cultures inclining only to work hard when needed. MarkRead MoreSocial Stereotypes And Cultural Stereotypes1282 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCultural BarriersÃ¢â¬â¢ 1991), Dongyuan Deng and Shuli Zhang (Ã¢â¬ËStereotypes CommunicationÃ¢â¬â¢ 2009) and Juliane House (Communicative Styles In English and German) to determine just how important it is for the foreigner to understand the cultural values, norms and moral attitudes of a different society, as to reduce the instance of miscommunication and offending of others within a particular group. Geographically, Germany locates itself in the centre of Europe, inhabited by over 81 million people approximately,Read MoreThe Argument Of Abortion On Abortion1692 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesis granted, it still does not follow that abortion can be recognized as the wrongful killing of a human being. Thomson bases this claim on answering the question of whether or not a pregnant woman is under the moral obligation to sustain a fetus for nine months. To Thomson, there is no moral obligation, an argument provisioned by the analogical case of the unconscious violinist. In this case, she places the reader in an involuntary situation where they are hooked up to a dying violinist who is dependentRead MoreEuthanasia Essay993 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages249(part ii) Part (i) Word Reflection What do you believe?/ What is your opinion? Euthanasia is not wrong. Euthanasia can be a morally correct under appropriate supervision. What about the terms/definitions? Are they clear? What kind of problems or ambiguities arise here? The term Euthanasia is known by most ordinary people as it is a famous issue that still remain debatable. There should not be any problem understanding the argument of euthanasia is not wrong. Except the level of acceptance of EuthanasiaRead MoreNature Vs. Nurture Debate1332 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesare some proved of behavioural genes at many twins study. When identical twins are reared apart, they still show same similarities in behaviour and response as they have been raise together. Take a look Take example of the case study of identical strangers twins (Paula Bernstein and Elyse Schein) explore Nature vs Nurture. One of the weakness issues against Biological Perspective is gay gene may exist that is mean they are actually born gays. Another issue is tendency to divorce, aggressive behaviourRead MoreThe practice of using ritual powers, magic and the invocation of spirits-broadly termed as1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbut also dictates a way in which they are expected to react to such unfortunate events. Witchcraft is found in every corner of their culture and influences the way they perceive things and the way their tribe functions according to specific laws, morals, etiquette and religion. The Zande come into daily contact with witchcraft. They respond to it with aggression and annoyance, instead of awe or fear, because it is so much a part if their ordinary world. They do not hold witchcraft responsible forRead MoreAnalysis Of The Tell Tale Heart 1110 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOftentimes, the most truly despicable villains are marked with indifference towards their moral reprehensibility. Ã¢â¬Å"In the Penal ColonyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Tell Tale HeartÃ¢â¬ both elucidate the idea that corruption, darkness, and imm orality alike are unperceivable to the one afflicted. However, while Ã¢â¬Å"In the Penal ColonyÃ¢â¬ suggests that this blind nature is a result of dutiful honor, responsibility, and hope, Ã¢â¬Å"The Tell Tale HeartÃ¢â¬ alternatively submits that it is a result of the possibility of fulfillment. Read MoreDoes Fiction Build the Morality of Individuals and Societies, or Does It Break It Down?947 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescultivate our mental and moral development. Others however have argued that fiction is mentally and ethically obstructive. Posing the age old question: Does fiction build the morality of individuals and societies, or does it break it down? Ã¢â¬Å"The goal, I suppose, any fiction writer has, no matter what your subject, is to hit the human heart and the tear ducts and the nape of the neck and to make a person feel something about the characters are going through and to experience the moral paradoxes and strugglesRead MoreEssay on Alan Moores The Watchmen1610 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestraditionally popularized portrayal of superheroes, whose unquestionably altruistic motives ultimately produce unrealistically idealized results; the realistically flawed characters of Watchmen exist in a multi faceted world characterized by moral ambiguity. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s imperialistic ambitions have long been justified as an expression of American idealism. Much like the portrayal of superheroes in popular culture, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s intervention in foreign affairs was portrayed as the result of a clearly defined
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Questions: How Is Investment Behavior Among Employees Affected By Their Level Of Income? What Is The Effect Of Gender Differences On Investment Employee Behaviour? How Does The Level Of Awareness Affect Investment Employee Behaviour? Answers: Introducation The objective of working is to earn income and sustain ones own needs. Everybody has unlimited wants and therefore continues to work for a long time. Even though the significant reason for being employed is to meet both short-term and long-term demands, still the salary has a different function. The willingness to earn and invest is felt by most workers, but the capacity to save may become a hindering factor. For some employees, the rate of return may determine the decision to invest or not. The salaried class presumably have a fixed source of income, but still, their investment behaviors differ widely (Anuradha ANJU, 2015). Furthermore, Employees may be equal in many aspects, but their behavior will vary significantly in a similar environment. Some different studies have been conducted on the factors affecting investment behavior but not in an exhaustive way, for instance, Parimalakanthi Kumar (2015) have researched the behavior of Individual Investors and their Preference. The pr esent study seeks to find out more on the specific determinants of the investment behavior among employees which include: the effect of income level, gender differences, and level of awareness on investment behavior among employees. Hypotheses Hypo 1 -There is a significant relationship between Employee behavior and level of satisfaction Hypo 2 - Gender differences affect investment employee behavior Hypo 3 - Level of awareness affects the investment decision. References Anuradha, P. S., ANJU, M. K. (2015). Saving and Investment BehaviourReview and an agenda for future research. Contemporary Commerce Review, 4, 43-73. Parimalakanthi, K., Kumar, M. A. (2015). A Study on Investment Preference and behaviour of Individual Investors in Coimbatore City. Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Sci
Saturday, April 11, 2020
Asian Americans Hispanics Although most Asian Americans are culturally assimilated (Americanized), they often encounter racism as people of foreign-origin, because of their distinctive Asian racial appearance. The Asian Americans have to face racism because they are assumed to have close ties with their Asian ethnic culture. The Americans always feel that Asian Americans do not belong to their country; so they wish to know the foreign ethnic origins of Asian Americans.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Asian Americans Hispanics specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ethnic identity of Asian Americans has been a considerable challenge for them over the years. Many Asian Americans are identified more as Americans in comparison with their Asian cultural heritage even if they continue to acknowledge its impact. The reason for this consists in the fact that they have become assimilated with the American culture and are part of the culture, hence, they are not discriminated against a lot. Since they have been accepted in some way by the society the live in, the Asian Americans do not actively assert their ethnic identity. The issue of ethnic identity comes to surface in the context of viewing the Asian Americans as foreign ethnic minority in America due to their race and place of birth, being the factors, which cannot be evaded. Many Asian Americans are proud to be of Asian descent since they accept and enjoy Asian ethnic heritage, which is encouraged by the fact that America has a multi-ethnic ideology and interest in cultural diversity. In the context of ethnic identity, there has been the emergence of Asian Americans as the ethnic identity that includes all ethnic minorities of Asian origin in the United States due to the fact that various groups of Asian American descent have been counted as a nation. In the political scene, the mobilization of people with Asian American descent as a nation has also contributed to this aspect. Al so in the sphere of education, the term Asian American is popular among youth since they feel they cannot identify their exact ethnic race, hence, they refer themselves to one group due to their origin. However, older people of Japanese American descent do not identify themselves as Asian Americans since they feel they are different from other Asian Americans, as such, the term can be considered broad. In the history of ethnicity, ethnic revival has been evident among the latest generations of Asian Americans. Some of the youth of Japanese American descent have claimed that they regret that they have become assimilated to such an extent due to the lost of the Japanese ethnic heritage. It has created the awareness connected with the ethnic revival, making the Asian Americans feel that maintaining and sustaining their ethnic heritage is essential, hence, they should avoid becoming Americanized.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your fir st paper with 15% OFF Learn More The future of Asian Americans in American society is still debatable considering the fact whether they can be fully considered as whites. The Asian Americans have become part of the society, but they have not been considered as whites. Even if they become more assimilated in terms of culture, the Asian Americans will hardly be considered as white. The reason for such consideration is that there is a difference between the physical appearance of various races. The determinant factor to how one is viewed and identified within their ethnic race is mainly their physical appearance. An individual is mainly identified by his/her race due to their nature and origin. However, this can eventually change with the consideration of high intermarriage rates between Asian Americans and whites. Many people born in intermarriages, consider and identify themselves as whites since their physical appearance resembles whites.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Biography of John Napier, Scottish Mathematician John Napier (1550-April 4, 1617) was a Scottish mathematician and theological writer who developed the concept ofÃ logarithms and the decimal point as a mathematical calculation method. He also had an influence in the world of physics and astronomy. Fast Facts: John Napier Known For: Developing and introducing the concept of logarithms, Napiers Bones and the decimal point.Born: 1550 at Merchiston Castle, nearÃ Edinburgh, ScotlandDied: April 4, 1617, at Merchiston CastleSpouse(s): Elizabeth Stirling (m. 1572-1579), Agnes ChisholmChildren: 12 (2 with Stirling, 10 with Chisholm)Notable Quote: Seeing there is nothing that is so troublesome to mathematical practice.... than the multiplications, divisions, square and cubical extractions of great numbers, which besides the tedious expense of time are... subject to many slippery errors, I began, therefore, to consider [how] I might remove those hindrances. Early Life Napier was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, into the Scottish nobility. Since his father was Sir Archibald Napier of Merchiston Castle, and his mother, Janet Bothwell, was the daughter of a member of Parliament, John Napier became the laird (property owner) of Merchiston. Napiers father was only 16 when his son, John, was born. As was the practice for members of the nobility, Napier did not enter school until he was 13. He did not stay in school very long, however. It is believed that he dropped out and traveled inÃ Europe to continue his studies. Little is known about these years, where or when he may have studied. In 1571, Napier turned 21 and returned to Scotland. The following year he married Elizabeth Stirling, daughter of Scottish mathematician James Stirling (1692-1770), and bat a castle at Gartnes in 1574. The couple had two children before Elizabeth died in 1579. Napier later married Agnes Chisholm, with whom he had ten children. On the death of his father in 1608, Napier and his family moved into Merchiston Castle, where he lived the rest of his life. Napiers father had been deeply interested and involved in religious matters, and Napier himself was no different. Because of his inherited wealth, he needed no professional position. He kept himself very busy by being involved with the political and religious controversies of his time. For the most part, religion and politics in Scotland at this time pitted Catholics against Protestants. Napier was anti-Catholic, as evidenced by his 1593 book against Catholicism and the papacy (office of the pope) entitled A Plaine Discovery of the Whole Revelation of St. John. This attack was so popular that it was translated into several languages and saw many editions. Napier always felt that if he attained any fame at all in his life, it would be because of that book. Becoming an Inventor As a person of high energy and curiosity, Napier paid much attention to his landholdings and tried to improve the workings of his estate. Around the Edinburgh area, he became widely known as Marvellous Merchiston for the many ingenious mechanisms he built to improve his crops and cattle. He experimented with fertilizers to enrich his land, invented an apparatus to remove water from flooded coal pits, and bat devices to better survey and measure land. He also wrote about plans to bad elaborate devices that would deflect any Spanish invasion of the British Isles. In addition, he described military devices that were similar to todays submarine, machine gun, and army tank. He never attempted to build any of the military instruments, however. Napier had a great interest in astronomy. which led to his contribution to mathematics. John was not just a stargazer; he was involved in research that required lengthy and time-consuming calculations of very large numbers. Once the idea came to him that there might be a better and simpler way to perform large number calculations, Napier focused on the issue and spent twenty years perfecting his idea. The result of this work is what we now callÃ logarithms. The Father of Logarithms and the Decimal Point Napier realized that all numbers can be expressed in what is now called exponential form, meaning 8 can be written as 23, 16 as 24Ã and so on. What makes logarithms so useful is the fact that the operations of multiplication and division are reduced to simple addition and subtraction. When very large numbers are expressed as a logarithm, multiplication becomes the addition ofÃ exponents. Example: 102Ã times 105Ã can be calculated as 10Ã 25Ã or 107. This is easier than 100 times 100,000. Napier first made this discovery known in 1614 in his book called A Description of the Wonderful Canon of Logarithms. The author briefly described and explained his inventions, but more importantly, he included his first set of logarithmic tables. These tables were a stroke of genius and a big hit with astronomers and scientists. It is said that English mathematician Henry Briggs was so influenced by the tables that he traveled to Scotland just to meet the inventor. This lead to a cooperative improvement including the development ofÃ Base 10. Napier was also responsible for advancing the notion of the decimal fraction by introducing the use of the decimal point. His suggestion that a simple point could be used to separate the whole number and fractional parts of a number soon became accepted practice throughout Great Britain. Edited by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Nuclear Weapon - Essay Example That was the first and last strategic use of the "dirty bomb" which left its permanent mark in the form of acute radiation sickness and many lost generations in Japan. Such a mass level of death was only achieved by the Nazi's or blood thirsty conquerors like Genghis Khan who killed indiscriminately and mercilessly. Wiping out the entire population of an enemy country has never been easier. Yet in the aftermath of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki saga the nations of the world woke up to the horrific nightmares of such a drastic strategic weapon use. The use of nuclear weapons was strongly opposed at an international level and nuclear weapons were reduced to their role as political weapons.2Today these weapons have become political instruments with their role in pressuring and dominating other states. Any state without nuclear weapons perceives itself to be "weak" in political negotiations. 3 However super powers like the US have not exactly forgiven their weaker counterparts i.e. those countries who have dared to show defiance by "possessing" nuclear weapons. An example is the recent destruction of Iraq due to its weapons of mass destruction and the threats of a US attack faced by Iran for its hidden weapons of mass destruction.4 Pakistan has never revived from its political instability , since the political turmoil which arose just after the former premier Nawaz Sharif's refusal to sign the CTBT. 5. Arguably the nuclear weapon has become a cultural instrument .The 20th century saw two world wars and many civil wars which reshaped and readjusted the entire world's geography ,history and politics. There was a culture of violence which involved the cowboy style elimination of any state which dared defy a super power. Thus it was a culture of achieving ends by means of mass destruction and bloodshed. The ease with which the "dirty bomb" eliminated the enemy population frightened the warring nations beyond their wits. This is evident from the fact that apart from a few civil wars and regional unrest, there has been no large scale warfare around the world. Now there is a culture of promoting peace and having peace talks as all nations secretly wonder what the other state might be hiding in its weapons arsenal. However another alarming development is the increase in the ambiguous nuclear arsenals and secret war exercises in deserts by many countries like Pakistan and Israel6.The events of the past decade have seen an increase in the strategic, political and cultural importance of nuclear weapons .With in all three of these contexts Nuclear Weapons have become a part and parcel of the defence culture and an important tenet of government and policy. It should be noted in the background that the increase in the availability of the weapons has not been left uncontrolled and unmonitored. In 1957 the IAEA (The International Atomic Energy Agency) was set up to promote peaceful development of nuclear power and also provide for its control and to counter the proliferation of such weapons with in the principles of public international law. The IAEA did indeed encourage peaceful use of nuclear applications and the CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty) was a controversial issue of the mid-nineties which prohibited the testing of nuclear technology. Notoriously enough India and Pakistan refused to sign it, making South Asia a politically sensitive nation.7Since