Sunday, February 23, 2020
Nuclear Weapon - Essay Example That was the first and last strategic use of the "dirty bomb" which left its permanent mark in the form of acute radiation sickness and many lost generations in Japan. Such a mass level of death was only achieved by the Nazi's or blood thirsty conquerors like Genghis Khan who killed indiscriminately and mercilessly. Wiping out the entire population of an enemy country has never been easier. Yet in the aftermath of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki saga the nations of the world woke up to the horrific nightmares of such a drastic strategic weapon use. The use of nuclear weapons was strongly opposed at an international level and nuclear weapons were reduced to their role as political weapons.2Today these weapons have become political instruments with their role in pressuring and dominating other states. Any state without nuclear weapons perceives itself to be "weak" in political negotiations. 3 However super powers like the US have not exactly forgiven their weaker counterparts i.e. those countries who have dared to show defiance by "possessing" nuclear weapons. An example is the recent destruction of Iraq due to its weapons of mass destruction and the threats of a US attack faced by Iran for its hidden weapons of mass destruction.4 Pakistan has never revived from its political instability , since the political turmoil which arose just after the former premier Nawaz Sharif's refusal to sign the CTBT. 5. Arguably the nuclear weapon has become a cultural instrument .The 20th century saw two world wars and many civil wars which reshaped and readjusted the entire world's geography ,history and politics. There was a culture of violence which involved the cowboy style elimination of any state which dared defy a super power. Thus it was a culture of achieving ends by means of mass destruction and bloodshed. The ease with which the "dirty bomb" eliminated the enemy population frightened the warring nations beyond their wits. This is evident from the fact that apart from a few civil wars and regional unrest, there has been no large scale warfare around the world. Now there is a culture of promoting peace and having peace talks as all nations secretly wonder what the other state might be hiding in its weapons arsenal. However another alarming development is the increase in the ambiguous nuclear arsenals and secret war exercises in deserts by many countries like Pakistan and Israel6.The events of the past decade have seen an increase in the strategic, political and cultural importance of nuclear weapons .With in all three of these contexts Nuclear Weapons have become a part and parcel of the defence culture and an important tenet of government and policy. It should be noted in the background that the increase in the availability of the weapons has not been left uncontrolled and unmonitored. In 1957 the IAEA (The International Atomic Energy Agency) was set up to promote peaceful development of nuclear power and also provide for its control and to counter the proliferation of such weapons with in the principles of public international law. The IAEA did indeed encourage peaceful use of nuclear applications and the CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty) was a controversial issue of the mid-nineties which prohibited the testing of nuclear technology. Notoriously enough India and Pakistan refused to sign it, making South Asia a politically sensitive nation.7Since
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Saudi Arabian press during the occurrence of the events in Bahrain from 14th February to 16th March 2011 - Dissertation Example Content analysis, in relation to the BahrainÃ¢â¬â¢s conflict, of the two leading Saudi Arabian newspapers namely, Alriyadh and Alyoum was carried out by employing a constructed week approach for the entire period of occurrence of these events. The results of this content analysis revealed that the coverage of the events in Bahrain by the Saudi Press was, to a great extent, dependent on the Saudi Press Agency as a result of the constraints imposed over the press in the kingdom by the Saudi Arabian information policy. The news related to the Bahraini events mostly appeared to be positive in tone and also, tended to support the agenda and interests of the government of Saudi Arabia linked to the political and democratic position of Bahrain that particularly involve the status of the shiahs in the country. The findings of the content analysis deduced that the Saudi press failed to play its ideal role in the coverage of the events in Bahrain since it was extensively monitored, regulariz ed and censored and thereby, was not completely free and trustworthy. Thus, it is recommended that the press regulations should not be imposed by an external body instead they should better come from the press itself.
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Descriptive Words Essay Words Smile, grin, beam, smirk . . . Frown, scowl, glare, glower, grimace . . . Stare, gaze, gape, watch, gawk, ogle, look, examine, leer . . . Flinch, recoil, balk, cringe, shy away, pull back, wince, cower, shrink, tremble . . . Incredulous, disbelieving, skeptical, doubtful, dubious, uncertain, suspicious, questioning, vague . . . Quizzical, questioning, puzzled, surprised, perplexed, inquiring Interested, curious, involved, attentive, concerned, attracted, fascinated, engrossed . . . Sad, gloomy, cheerless, depressing, dark, dull, thick, dreary . . Happy, content, pleased, glad, joyful, cheerful, blissful, exultant, ecstatic, delighted, cheery, jovial . . . Scared, frightened, terrified, petrified, afraid, fearful, nervous, anxious, worried, timid, shy . . . Strong, burly, brawny, strapping, muscular, beefy, tough, fervent, intense, zealous, avid, eager . . . Coy, bashful, timid, modest, reserved, demure . . . Indifferent, apathetic, unresponsive . . . Remote, aloof, detached, distant . . Threatened, intimidated, alarmed, worried, anxious, troubled, upset, distressed, shocked, startled . . . Crash, thud, bump, thump, bang, thunder, smash, explode, roar, shout, scream, screech, shout, whistle, whine, squawk, blare, slam, stomp, stamp, noise, clap, bark, meow, moo, boom, yell, whisper, hum, snap, hiss, crackle . . . Taut, uptight, immobilized, paralyzed, tense, stretched, hollow, alarmed, strong, weak, sweaty, breathless, nauseated, sluggish, weary, tired, alive, feisty . . . Angry, resentful, irritated, enraged, furious, annoyed, inflamed, provoked, infuriated, offended, sullen, indignant, irate, wrathful, cross, sulky, bitter, frustrated, grumpy, boiling, fuming, stubborn, belligerent, confused, awkward, bewildered, empty . . . Angrily, anxiously, brightly, cheerfully, comfortably, curiously, delightfully, eagerly, enormously, excitedly, faintly, falsely, fearfully, foolishly, frightfully, gently, gracefully, gratefully, greedily, grumpily, helplessly, heroically, hungrily, impatiently, joyfully, kindly, luckily, magically, majestically, merrily, remarkably, splendidly, strangely, swiftly, unusually Afraid, fearful, frightened, timid, wishy-washy, shaky, apprehensive, fidgety, terrified, panicky, tragic, hysterical, cautious, shocked, horrified, insecure, impatient, nervous, dependent, anxious, pressured, worried, doubtful, suspicious, hesitant, awed, dismayed, scared, petrified, gutless . . . Bad, worse, poor, terrible, horrible, evil, wicked, corrupt, heinous, inferior, inept, ill, unfortunate , distressful . . . Big, huge, giant, gigantic, monstrous, tremendous , gargantuan , large, wide, important, influential, immense, massive, bulky, heavy, voluminous . . . Eager, keen, earnest, intent, zealous, ardent, avid, anxious, enthusiastic, proud . . . Fearless,, encouraged, courageous, confident, secure, independent, reassured, bold, brave, daring, heroic, hardy, determined, loyal, proud, impulsive . . . Good, excellent, fine, satisfactory , kind, generous, worthy, humane, pure, benign, benevolent , proper, valid, favored . . Happy, brisk, buoyant, calm, carefree, cheerful, cheery, comfortable, complacent, contented, ecstatic, elated, enthusiastic, excited, exhilarated, generous, glad, grateful, hilarious, inspired, jolly, joyous, lighthearted, merry, optimistic, peaceful, playful, pleased, relaxed, restive, satisfied, serene, sparkling, spirited, surprised, vivacious . . Hurt, injured, isolated, offended, distressed, pained, suffering, afflicted, worried, tortured . . Little, small, tiny, micros copic, miniscule, minute, inconsequential, Lilliputian, insignificant, narrow, thin, paltry, modest, slender, slight . . . Looked, gazed, peered, starched , stared, glanced, sighted, regarded , attended , viewed, inspected , directed, followed . . Nice, friendly, helpful, gentle, warm, inspiring, good-natured, kind, generous, cheerful, loving, happy, funny, peppy, relaxed, thoughtful, cooperative . . . Ran, trotted, skipped, hurried, moved, sped, operated, progressed , glided, flowed, traced, pursued, galloped, loped, fled . . . Sad, sorrowful, unhappy, depressed, melancholy, gloomy, somber, dismal, heavy-hearted, mournful, dreadful, dreary, flat, blah, dull, in the dumps, sullen, moody, sulky, out of sorts, low, discontented, discouraged, disappointed, concerned, sympathetic, compassionate, choked up, embarrassed, shameful, ashamed, useless, worthless, ill at ease . . . Said, acknowledged, acquiesced, added, addressed, admitted, admonished, advised, advocated, affirmed, agreed, alleged, allowed, announced, answered, approved, argued, asked, assented, asserted, assumed, assured, attested, avowed, babbled, bantered, bargained, barked, began, begged, bellowed, beseeched, boasted, bragged, brought, called, cautioned, charged, chided, cited, claimed, commanded, comment, commented, complained, conceded, concluded, condescended, confessed, confided, consented, contended, contested, continued, contradicted, counseled, countered, cracked, cried, debated, decided, declared, decreed, demanded, demurred, denied, denounced, described, dictated, directed, disclosed, disrupted, divulged, drawled, droned, elaborated, emphasized, enjoined, entreated, enunciated, estimated, exclaimed, explained, exposed, expressed, faltered, feared, foretold, fumed, giggled, granted, granted, grinned, groaned, growled, grumbled, haggled, hedged, held, hesitated, hinted, howled, impar ted, implied, implored, indicated, inferred, informed, inquired, insinuated, insisted, instructed, nterjected, interrogated, intimated, intimidated, itemized, jested, judged, lamented, laughed, lectured, lied, lisped, listed, made, maintained, mentioned, mimicked, moaned, mumbled, murmured, mused, muttered, nagged, narrated, noted, notified, objected, observed, opined, orated, ordered, petitioned, pleaded, pled, pointed, prayed, predicted, proclaimed, professed, prompted, pronounced, proposed, propounded, protested, proved, publicized, queried, questioned, quibbled, quipped, quoted, rambled, ranted, reaffirmed, reasoned, reassured, reciprocated, recited, recommended, recounted, referred, refuted, regretted, reiterated, rejoiced, rejoined, related, relented, remarked, reminded, remonstrated, repeated, replied, reported, reprimanded, requested, responded, restated, resumed, retorted, returned, revealed, roared, ruled, sanctioned, scoffed, scolded, screamed, shouted, shrieked, snapped, sneered, sobbed, solicited, specified, spoke, sputtered, stammered, stated, stipulated, stormed, stressed, stuttered, suggested, taunted, testified, thought, threatened, told, twitted, unbridled, urged, uttered, vowed, wailed, warned, went, wept, whispered, whistled, whooped, wrangled, yawned, yelled . . . Amazing, Attractive, Authentic, Beautiful, Better, Big, Colorful, Colossal, Complete, Confidential, Enormous, Excellent, Exciting, Exclusive, Expert, Famous, Fascinating, Free, Full, Genuine, Gigantic, Huge, Informative, Instructive, Interesting, Lavishly, Liberally, Mammoth, Professional, Startling, Strange, Strong, Sturdy, Successful, Superior, Surprise . . . Crammed, Delivered, Directed . . . Brave, Angry, Bright, Busy, Clever, Cold, Cozy, Deep, Flat, Foggy, Free, Fresh, Frozen, Gentle, Giant, Glad, Grand, Hollow, Hungry, Hurt, Lucky, Neat, New, Old, Polite, Proud, Rough, Serious, Shiny, Short, Shy, Smooth, Spotted, Strong, Tall, Tough, Weak, Wide, Wild, Wise, Bumpy, Careful, Cheerful, Chilly, Clean, Cloudy, Crisp, Damp, Enormous, Fancy, Flashy, Flowery, Frosty, Fuzzy, Huge, Icy, Kind, Marvelous, Merry, Messy, Mighty, Misty, Moldy, Plaid, Plain, Quiet, Scented, Selfish, Sharp, Slim, Slippery, Sloppy, Sly, Soggy, Spicy, Stormy, Striped, Sweet, Tasty, Thinly, Tiny, Velvety, Twinkling, Weak, Worn, Young . . .
Monday, January 20, 2020
Educational Implications for Heidegger's Views On Poetry And Thinking ABSTRACT: I discuss some of the educational implications emerging from Heidegger's views on poetry, thinking, and language. Specifically, Heidegger's views on the neighborhood between poetry and thinking suggest that most accepted methods of teaching poetry are in error, because they ignore this neighboring relation. The importance of this relation is presented and clarified. I then discuss the implications of Heidegger's view for teaching poetry. Heidegger's series of three lectures, later published as "The Nature of Language" has some very significant implications for education. (1) In this paper I focus on the second lecture. In opening his second lecture, Heidegger invites his listeners to think about the nature of language. Such thinking, he explains, has little to do with the quest for knowledge in the sciences. He cautions his listeners about the danger arising from the domination of method in scientific study and discourse. He cites Nietzsche who stated that what characterizes contemporary science is the victory of scientific method over science. By contrast, thinking, including thinking about the nature of language, has to do with a quite unique region in which thought exists. It is not dominated by or based on a method. Thinking is not even governed by a specific theme. In today's science, Heidegger holds, even the theme of study is a part of the method. The field of Computer Sciences, with which Heidegger was not well versed, since it flourished -- exploded -- after his death, is a poignant example of a contemporary science whose theme is controlled by method. Heidegger's description of science has proved quite true in the four decades s... ... 1997). (5) Pablo Neruda, "For All to Know" in Pablo Neruda, Winter Garden, trans. William O'Daly (Port Townsend, Wash.: Copper Canyon Press, 1986) p.19. (6) Martin Heidegger, "Letter on Humanism" in Basic Writings, ed. David Farrell Krell (New York: Harper & Row, 1977) p. 210. (7) Pablo Neruda, Spain in the Heart: Hymn to the Glories of the People at War, trans. Richard Schaaf (Washington: Azul Editions, 1993). See Pablo Neruda, Memoirs (Middlesex, England: Penguin, 1978), pp. 125-126. (8) Heidegger, "The Nature of Language," p. 93. (9) Hayden Carruth, Collected Shorter Poems, 1946-1991 (Fort Worden, Wash: Copper Canyon Press, 1992). p. 343. (10) Martin Heidegger, Aristotle's Metaphysics, Bk. IX Ch.1-3: On the Essence and Actuality of Force, trans. Walter Brogan and Peter Warnek (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1995), p. 109.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, the amount of crime that occurs can be quite difficult to deal with and responsibility ends up falling on police to curtail it. Unfortunately, the infectious nature of crime often drags these assigned Ã¢â¬Å"stoppersÃ¢â¬ into the same mud that they are trying to prevent others from falling into. When officers abuse their legally sanctioned position of authority, it is known as police corruption. It is a persistent problem that is more significant in a criminal sense than the average person committing a crime because it is happening by a representative/protector of the law. Since police are not judiciaries, they do not determine who is guilty and thus undermine the law system when they do these crimes. Also, it is important to note that police corruption is not the same as an ordinary instance of crime. To elaborate, Ã¢â¬Å"Police corruption is an illegal use of organizational power for personal gain. The personal nature of the gain distinguishes corruption from brutality, perjury, illegal search, or any other law violations committed in the pursuit of such legitimate organizational goals as fighting crime. The organizational nature of the power used illegally excludes many crimes committed by policemen, such as burglary committed by a city police officer in his suburban town of residence in which he has no contact with the local police. That particular burglary would be merely a crime. A burglary committed by a police officer in his own police jurisdiction, under the protection of his colleagues or aided by his organizational knowledge of his colleaguesÃ¢â¬â¢ practices, would be both a crime and an act of police corruption.Ã¢â¬ (Sherman, 31). As one can see, police corruption is a serious problem as it is almost always involves an associated act of crime. There is no room for this behaviour in fair environments and it cannot occur if society wishes to advance. Ultimately, police corruption cannot coexist with the concept of community policing because it is unethical and morally wrong, it is contrary to Robert PeelÃ¢â¬â¢s nine principles of policing and undermines effectiveness, and it offers no sense of accountability to the government and to the public. There is no logical way to justify corrupt actions by the police. Any time it occurs, it involves the Ã¢â¬Å"abuse of a legally sanctioned position of authorityÃ¢â¬âin other words, the status of the police officer makes the crime possible. It is this abuse of a Ã¢â¬Ësanctioned and sacredÃ¢â¬â¢ social position that makes police corruption so dangerous. It is the ultimate social inversionÃ¢â¬âthe cops become criminals. (Police Corruption)Ã¢â¬ Instead of helping to fight crime, they end up contributing to the problem through means that are only available to them because of their sworn duties as protectors of the community. When corruption is revealed to the public, the police lose the confidence and trust that allows them to function and be legitimate. Corrupt acts are completely immoral as they are motivated by personal gain which demonstrates selfishness and a disregard of the well-being of society. The detrimental aspects of police misconduct cannot be overstated as they immediately threaten the possibility of effective police-community relationships. Ã¢â¬Å"In terms of public trust for law enforcement, recent polls show that only 56 percent of people rated the police as having a high or very high ethical standard as compared with 84 percent for nurses. Over the past few decades, great strides have occurred in the law enforcement profession. To begin with, many police agencies have avoided hiring candidates who have low ethical standards and have identified those onboard employees early in their careers who might compromise the departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s integrity. In addition, research has discovered new methods of testing candidates for their psychological propensity to act ethically. However, unethical conduct by the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s police officers continues to occur in departments large and small. (Martin). Clearly, society has made some strides toward ensuring ethical and rational behaviour in the police force but it is impossible to root it out all the way to the individual level. For community policing to be effective, a high percentage of officers must be able to see the difference between right and wrong and take appropriate action. Recent studies offer some understanding of the phenomenon in the hope of rooting out this behavior that serves to undermine the overall legitimacy of law enforcement. Theories on the role of society in law enforcement, the negative influence of an officerÃ¢â¬â¢s department, and a personÃ¢â¬â¢s own natural tendency to engage in unethical behavior have been offered as potential explanations. While some may argue that the Ã¢â¬Å"rotten appleÃ¢â¬ theory is the best explanation for this problem, the vast amount of evidence to the contrary is overwhelming. Deviance rarely persists in an isolated environment but it thrives when it is adopted by an entity such as a department. To explain, Ã¢â¬Å"If we scan these activities then it must be plain that we are no longer dealing with individuals seeking solely personal gain but with group behaviour rooted in established arrangements. Police officers have to be initiated into these practises, rationalisations have to be produced to accept them, supervisors have to collude or turn a blind eye, justifications have to be sought to continue them, and organizations have either in some way to condone or encourage these activities Ã¢â¬â or else fail to tackle them. This is social behaviour, conducted in groups within organizations, that is powerful enough to override the officerÃ¢â¬â¢s oath of office, personal conscience, departmental regulations and criminal laws (European Committee, 68).Ã¢â¬ For all of these events to occur, it is evident that a multitude of people inside the organization must collaborate and therefore it is rarely an isolated case of corruption. Corruption is highly contagious and this is illustrated well through theories such as the Ã¢â¬Å"slippery slopeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"grass vs meat eatersÃ¢â¬ This also explains why corruption is usually concentrated in certain precincts or areas instead of being dispersed. Sir Robert Peel was credited with the concept that the police depend on citizen cooperation in providing services in a democratic society. Ã¢â¬Å"Peel envisioned a strong connection between the police and the community (Police Corruption)Ã¢â¬ . Unfortunately, the existence of police corruption is contrary to all nine of his principles. The policeÃ¢â¬â¢s basic mission is to prevent crime and disorder, which they only contribute to if they are corrupt. They rely on the public approval of their actions, which cannot happen in a just society (Ã¢â¬Å"community tolerance, or even support, for police corruption can facilitate a departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s becoming corrupt [Sherman, 32]). Corrupt police officers do not cooperate with the public; they avoid contact as they do not want to reveal their illicit nature. Since corrupt officers are aware of their actions, they might have improper judgement and use physical force. They fail to demonstrate absolutely impartial service by attempting to manipulate public opinion, do not become Ã¢â¬Å"oneÃ¢â¬ with the public, they usurp the power of the judiciary, and sacrifice efficiency for personal gain by not devoting all of their effort to reducing crime and disorder. These corrupt officers also undermine effectiveness as they do not use their time as well as they should be, show only self-concern and indifference to the morality of the situation, and abuse resources. Ã¢â¬Å"The legal authority of police departments and the nature of law violations in their jurisdiction provide organizational resources that can be exploited for personal gain. The nature of these resources varies greatly among and within police departments according to the nature of police tasks performed and the social characteristics of the police task environment. A police department that is a corrupt organization can exploit the resources for internal profit. In all cases, exploitation of these resources for personal gain is an inversion of the formal goals of the organization. (Sherman, 38). Depending on exactly what type of resources the organization deals with, they may or may not be suitable for exploitation. Federal drug enforcement entities constantly deal with opportunities to make a lot of illicit profit whereas Secret Services almost never has chances to make illicit gains at all. In many situations, police may lose some or all of their accountability to the public or government if they do not act with the appropriate intentions. Accountability is a vital element of not just community policing but policing in general. If the police are to achieve their goal which should be lawfulness and legitimacy, they require effective accountability procedures. Ã¢â¬Å"Lawfulness and legitimacy, in turn, are essential if the police are to achieve their goals of reducing crime and disorder, enhancing the quality of neighborhood life, and serving community needs. A lack of legitimacy inhibits the development of working partnerships that are an essential ingredient in community policing and problem oriented policing. Contrary to the popular view that effective crime control and respect for constitutional principles are competing values in policing, experts today increasingly recognize that lawful conduct and accountability are essential for crime-fighting. (Walker, 1). While it is apparent that lawfulness and legitimacy must be upheld in order to serve the community, a fundamental principal of a democratic society that the police should be held accountable for their actions. This includes choosing what actions they take and how they perform. This is especially true in post-conflict environments where police forces are viewed as brutal, corrupt, and unfair. In order to maintain a healthy relationship, a Ã¢â¬Å"liberal society must be maintained, complaints about the police must be addressed, and police themselves must be protected by disgruntled acts by the communityÃ¢â¬ (Accountability and Police). At the same time, police must keep a healthy distance to avoid excessive personal interaction which leads to preferential treatment, discretion, and favouritism. Furthermore, it is important to note that, Ã¢â¬Å"The accountability of police to the public is undermined when charges are often dropped while officers under investigation are usually suspended with pay. In other words, there is no real certainty of punishment and this de-legitimizes any notion of public accountability and respect for the law (Police Corruption). In the eyes of the public, it is already bad enough that the officer are taking advantage of their position of authority but to have them face virtually no consequences is beyond demoralizing. In order for community policing to exist, the public must be confident in the fact that the police are not taking advantage of their position and are accountable in and out of service. In conclusion, because police corruption is unethical and morally wrong, violates all of Robert PeelÃ¢â¬â¢s principles, and shows a complete disregard of the notion of accountability, it is impossible to coincide with effective community policing. Police corruption is the illegal use of organizational power for personal gain and unfortunately a still a common occurrence in modern society. It is crucial for the police, as protectors of society, to not allow themselves to stoop so low. The community has to be able to know that no matter what police might have to deal with, they will remain pure and free of corruption in order to begin forming positive relationships. Methods of containing corruption include abolishing existing precedures that encourage corruption, letting go of any member that demonstrates corrupt tendencies, requiring a certain level of accountability, and many other steps. Organizations such as the Special Investigations Unit have made strides in reducing corruption however it is not nearly enough. If corruption is controlled to a point where it no longer has a detrimental impact to society, community policing can have enough room to develop. Ã¢â¬Å"Preventing corruption completely is a tall order. However, steps can be taken to reduce it significantly. There are a few fundamental ideas that can be implemented that can, by their very nature, curb corruption. The three areas that need attention are the officer training, personal characters, and the incentives program. The first step is to hire police officers of good character. Stricter screening methods need to be implemented to decrease the chance that a potential hire will become corrupt. Once an officer is hired, the department should do all it can to promote ethics on the job. The department must understand that the citizens trust the police to be ethical, and a breach of that trust is unjust. Further, it is not practical to act unethically. People eye the police and their behavior constantly. Corruption in the force makes it easier for a citizen to rationalize acting unlawfully, which just creates more work for the police. If a police officer, who is allegedly the pillar of the law, can defy it, why cannot the citizens who pay for the police services? (White) A corrupt police officer cannot very well express effectively why citizens should obey the law, for he has no consistency and thus no credibility. Works Cited Sherman, Lawrence W. Scandal and Reform: Controlling Police Corruption. N.p.: University of California, 1978. Print. Police Powers and Accountability in a Democratic Society. N.p.: 2000. Google Books. Web. . Walker, Samuel. Ã¢â¬Å"Police Accountability: Current Issues and Research Needs.Ã¢â¬ National Institute of Justice Police Planning (2006): 1-35. National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. . White, Stuart A. Ã¢â¬Å"Controlling Police Corruption.Ã¢â¬ Stanford University. N.p., 4 June 1994. Web. 25 Jan. 2012. . Martin, Rich M.S. Ã¢â¬Å"Police Corruption: An Analytical Look Into Police Ethics.Ã¢â¬ FBI. N.p., May 2011. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. .
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Catadioptric: Catadioptric telescopes are those that use both mirrors and lenses to produce an image. The most common or popular type of catadioptric telescope is the Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. Schmidt-Cassegrain telescopes (SCT) are a catadioptric design, meaning they use both lenses and mirrors. SCTs are primarily reflecting telescopes, but they use a corrector lens to eliminate aberrations that would result from the mirror design alone. In an SCT the incoming light passes through the Schmidt corrector lens (also called a corrector plate) at the front of telescope. It is reflected from a concave primary mirror at the back of the scope which focuses the light to the front of the telescope where it is reflected again by a smaller, convex secondary mirror. Finally, the light travels back through a hole in the primary mirror to the rear of the scope where an eyepiece is located for visual observing. (Starizona.com, 2015) Below is a ray diagram of a Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope: (A-levelphysicstutor.com, 2015) At first it seems that an SCT should have a focal length twice as long as the length of the tube, since the light travels twice the length of the tube. However, SCTs actually have focal lengths about 5 times longer than the tube length. This is due to the convex curvature of the secondary mirror. This effectively magnifies the focal length, making the scope act much longer than it is. The diagram below shows how a Cassegrain type telescope (such as an SCT)Show MoreRelatedHistory of the Telescope2127 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesIntroduction The telescope is an instrument which increases our ability to observe far away objects through the collection of electromagnetic radiation, the most prevalent type of telescope is the optical telescope which collects light, however there are other kinds of telescopes which collect UV and X -Rays. 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I will be talking about all of these in this paper over Sir Isaac Newton along with different parts of his personal life along the way. Starting off from the list of substantial accomplishmentsRead MorePrinciples Of Photonics And Optical Engineering10448 Words Ã |Ã 42 Pagesa photon relies on upon the probability of having a photon and an electron connect so as to move starting with one energy band then onto the next. The absorption is relatively low for photons with energy very close to that of the band gap, as only those electrons directly at the valence band edge interacts with the photon to cause absorption. The absorption coefficient, Ã ±, is related to the extinction coefficient, k, by the following formula: where Ã » is the wavlength. Angular diameter The angularRead MoreApplication Of Free Space Optics2796 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesof communication. This is now mostly used for connecting different LANs and also used in satellite communication. There are many wireless technologies like Bluetooth, infrared and many others but this technology has the capability of replacing all those technologies. This FSO communication is mostly used because of its security reasons. Fiber optical link communication has been the best kind of transmission in this era however this FSO communication additionally supplanted this fiber optic communicationRead MoreWhat s Of A Scientist? S Tool Box? Essay2109 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pageshistory of the microscope, which is comprised of high powered lenses, dates as far back as the year 100 when Romans looked through glass they found and realized objects appeared larger than actual size. The glass used in the modern day microscopes called lenses from the Latin word Ã¢â¬Å"lentilÃ¢â¬ is the primary component of any microscope (Sashmasusik Hayath, 2015). The general use of the glass prior to Roger Bacon combining the glass with mirrors in the 1200Ã¢â¬â¢s was to view bugs rightfully named flea glassesRead MoreImages And Images Of Images1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthis reason offering an outline of it. Photos may be -dimensional, which includes a photo, display screen show, and as well as a 3-dimensional, inclusive of a statue or hologram. They may be captured by optical devices Ã¢â¬â such as cameras, mirrors, lenses, telescopes, microscopes, and so on. And natural items and phenomena, consisting of the human eye or water surfaces. The phrase image is also used inside the broader sense of any -dimensional discern along with a map, a graph, a pie chart, or an summary
Friday, December 27, 2019
As far as learning for standardized testing goes there is a federal act involved that plays a role in the educational system and controls how the educational system teaches and tests these students. This act is named, The No Child Left Behind Act. This act makes standardized assessments mandatory for all fifty states. This law serves a purpose to test students in reading and math for grades three through eight. In high school, students are required to test and they are expected to meet or exceed state standards in reading and math. (Elementary and Secondary Education Act) Ã¢â¬Å"The major focus of No Child Left Behind is to close student achievement gaps by providing all children with a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to obtain a high-quality educationÃ¢â¬ (Elementary and Secondary Education Act). But since the early 2000s, has this act kept it promise or has the responsibility of this act been not meeting these standards? When this law was first placed, it was said that this act would make it possible for students in the United States to become proficient in math and reading by the year 2014. (National Council of Churches Committee on Public Education and Literacy) But, does this mean that every student in the U.S. will meet these expectations? The National Council of Churches Committee on Public Education and Literacy does not believe so. Ã¢â¬Å"The No Child Left Behind Act sets an impossibly high barÃ¢â¬âthat every single student will be proficient in reading and math by 2014. WeShow MoreRelatedNo Child Left Behind Act1621 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The support for the No Child Left Behind Act plummeted down shortly after the act passed. Many people supported the act at first simply because they supported the goals of the act, once they saw the results, their opinions changed. One of the biggest arguments towards No Child Left Behind is that it is unfair. People believed the resources of difference schools were unequal, and thought the Title 1 fun ding that the schools received should go to ensuring all schools had equal resources. Many peopleRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act1670 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Literature Review: Every Student Succeeds Act Suzanne Hatton, BSW, LSW University of Kentucky-SW 630 Abstract This literature review seeks to explore the Every Student Succeeds Act (2015), a bipartisan reauthorization and revision to the No Child Left Behind Act (2002). The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the first law passed in fourteen years to address Reneeded changes to the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Considered progressive and innovative at the time of itsRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act875 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe No Child Left Behind Act Ã¢â¬Å"NCLBÃ¢â¬ was a bill passed by the Senate in 2001 and signed into law by President George W. Bush on January 8, 2002. It was a revision of the Elementary and Secondary Act Ã¢â¬Å"ESEAÃ¢â¬ of 1965 by President Lyndon Johnson. The NCLB was intended to help children in lower-income families achieve the same standard of education as children in higher income families. This was done by the federal government providing extra finances for Title I schools in exchange for a rise in academicRead MoreNo Child Left Behind Act1418 Wor ds Ã |Ã 6 Pagessystematic oppression. The flowing water of oppression floods poor schools; drowning students with dreams, and giving no mercy. The only ones safe from the water are the privileged, who are oblivious to the fact that it exists. George Bush s No Child Left Behind Act, which passed in 2002, mandated annual standardized testing in math and reading. If schools received insufficient scores, they were punished or shut down. This fueled the construed concept that a school is only doing well if the students haveRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act Essay921 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesuccessful at it. (Source 7) Next, the Ã¢â¬Å"No Child left behind ActÃ¢â¬ it was signed by President George W. Bush and it passed with bipartisan support on Jan. 8, 2002. This Act states that there will be mandated annual testing in the subject reading and math and science. In the grades 3-8 and 10th grade. It shows the Adequate Yearly Progress of each school in the system of the United States. (source 1) The biggest point of this Act is that no child is Ã¢â¬Å"trapped in a failing schoolÃ¢â¬ (source 1). That eachRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act2120 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesWhen President George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) into law in 2002, the legislation had one goal-- to improve educational equity for all students in the United States by implementing standards for student achievement and school district and teacher performance. Before the No Child Left Behind Act, the program of study for most schools was developed and implemented by individual states and local communitiesÃ¢â¬ â¢ school boards. Proponents of the NCLB believed that lax oversightRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act1988 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesJanuary 8, 2002, George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act into law (also known as the NCLB). The No Child Left Behind Act was the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, a federal education bill addressing the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s schools. At his signing ceremony, Bush stated, Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no greater challenge than to make sure that every childÃ¢â¬âand all of us on this stage mean every child, not just a few childrenÃ¢â¬âevery single child, regardless of where they live, how theyÃ¢â¬â¢reRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act1592 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe No Child Left Behind Act was the biggest educational step taken by president Bush and his administration. Its main goal included the increase of achievement in education and completely eliminate the gap between different racial and ethnic grou ps. Its strategies had a major focus on uplifting test scores in schools, hiring Ã¢â¬Å"highly qualified teachersÃ¢â¬ and deliver choices in education. Unluckily, the excessive demands of the law have not succeeded in achieving the goals that were set, and have causedRead MoreNo Child Left Behind Act1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNo Child Left Behind Introduction The No Child Left Behind Act (NALB) was signed into law by the former President of the United States George Walker Bush on the 8th of January 2002. It was a congressional attempt to encourage student achievement through some reforms focused on elementary and secondary education programs in the United States. The NCLB requires that within a decade all students including those with disabilities to perform at a proficient level on their state academic evaluation testsRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesChristian J. Green Dr. Shoulders NCLB and ESSA 28 February 2016 The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was authorized by and signed into law in 2002. NCLB was a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965. NCLB was meant to hold schools to higher standards, enforce accountability, and close achievement gaps that had existed in education since ESEA was enacted. Nevertheless, the rigorous standards and goals set forth under NCLB were never attained. ESEA Flexibility could